Will building toilets end Open Defecation?

Will building toilets solve the problem of Open Defecation? – Fecelore – Stories on Sanitation

Sanitation is the name given to the process, facilities and services employed towards the safe disposal of human waste – which includes feces and urine. Human waste unless properly disposed of, is not just really gross but also tends to be a major cause for several water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhoea, gastro-enteritis and typhoid. According to the World Health Organisation, improving sanitation can have a hugely significant beneficial impact on the health of individuals and families.

Inadequate sanitation also has serious economic implications. The health impact of poor sanitation results in pronounced economic losses which come from direct medical costs of treating sanitation-related illnesses, and indirect costs due to reduced or lost productivity as a result of ill health. Infact, inadequate sanitation is said to have caused India considerable economic losses, equivalent to 6.4 per cent of India’s GDP in 2006, or Rs.2.4 Lakh Crore.

According to the UN report card, close to 946 million people in the world have little or no access to sanitation and continue to practise open defecation. According to 2011 census, 53.1% (63.6% in 2001) of the households in India do not have a toilet, with the percentage being as high as 69.3% (78.1% in 2001) in rural areas and 18.6% (26.3% in 2001) in urban areas. However, providing toilets alone cannot solve the problem of unsafe sanitation.

Addressing the sanitation problem is not just about eliminating open defecation by providing toilets, but also of ensuring safe disposal of the fecal waste without it being exfiltrated into the environment. Attention should be paid to the social and behavioral aspect of the community while formulating solutions for access to safe sanitation.

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Looking beyond toilets

Will building toilets solve the problem of Open Defecation? – Fecelore – Stories on Sanitation

A close look at the ground realities will show us where the problem actually lies. For instance, it has been observed that toilets are being provided by the government and ULBs to end open defecation, but access to toilets continues to be a problem. A casual walk around any city or town would show us people urinating in public spaces because they do not have access to toilets. Providing toilets at random locations has not helped in solving the problem of open defecation or urination.

A news article in the Indian Express titled ‘It’s No Joke – State of the World’s Toilets’ by Water Aid said: “If all 774 million people in India waiting for household toilets were made to stand in a line, the queue would stretch from Earth to the moon and beyond. However, in places where toilets do exist, scant attention has been paid to the needs of women, children and people with disability. Access to clean and working toilet is a key to preventing open defecation, and beginning the journey towards safe sanitation.

Providing user-friendly and clean toilets in parks, bus stations, markets, petrol pumps, small restaurants and places of tourist interests should be made mandatory. If we continue providing toilets without looking into their access, maintenance and usability, it is unlikely that we will witness a real change as far as open defecation and open urination is concerned. Toilets with no water or unsafe toilets are only structures which will play little or no role in the long journey towards safe sanitation.

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